Earth is set to experience a double sunburn as it experiences two solar flares: A solar wind from a hole in the sun’s atmosphere; and a cloud of charged particles known as the ambient mass ejection (CME) On September 28, the US National Oceanic and Space Weather Prediction Center (NOAA) issued a warning that a “moderate” geomagnetic storm was expected in October 1Geomagnetic storms are the name given to disturbances of the Earth’s magnetic field caused by solar activity This disruption can have many effects on our planet and on modern technology, including disruptions to radio communications and grid problems. SWPC said the storm could cause high-frequency radio signals to fade at high latitudes, increase drag on low-Earth orbit satellites, and aurora in some northern states such as the United States. New York, Washington and Wisconsin According to solar activity news site SpaceWeather.com, the upcoming storm will be caused in part by a giant hole in the sun’s atmosphere.
The corona is a region of the sun’s upper atmosphere that appears dark when viewed in X-ray and ultraviolet images because it is cooler and less dense than the surrounding solar plasma These regions tend to have an open magnetic field structure, allowing the solar wind – the constant stream of charged particles from the sun – to escape more easily and at high speed into the solar system. As this high-velocity flow travels through space, it compresses the surrounding solar wind, i.e. the flow of solar particles that is constantly moving through the solar system under normal circumstances If the high-velocity flow were to pass through Earth, it could interfere with our planet’s magnetic field, often causing effects that can last for days but are less severe than other forms of solar flares. more intense weather such as circular mass ejections (CME)The CME is a cloud of charged particles and magnetic fields that erupt from the sun when the sun’s twisted magnetic field lines suddenly redesign, releasing energy A CME is likely to pass through Earth at the same time as the solar wind.
Coronal holes appear as dark patches on images of the Sun when they are taken using ultraviolet and X-rays. They are cooler and less dense parts of our star, which means that the solar wind is more easily able to escape into space.
That means that fast streams of solar wind can be thrown out of the Sun – and may be directed towards Earth.
Such a stream will glance our atmosphere, leading to potential effects.